Published: 26 April, 2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 1 | Pages: 020-031
Introduction: Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressing, severe suppurative infection of the superficial fascia and the sorrounding tissues that may lead to necrosis, septic shock and death if left untreated. Facial NF is rarely seen and symptoms may be non-specific at the onset and depend on the origin site and the stage of the disease, making it difficult for diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done following the PRISMA guidance. PubMed database was searched for case reports published between January 2007 and March 2017. Full text articles were obtained and assesed for relevance. Data extraction was performed as an iterative process.
Results: A total of 24 articles, describing 29 adult patients with facial NF were included. Facial NF was more common in males. Skin trauma was the most frequent mechanism of lesion and diabetes mellitus was the most common associated systemic disorder. Periorbital area was the most affected area. In order of appereance, swelling and pain were the most common initial clinical manifestations. Group A Streptococcus was the most frequent microorganism isolated. Advanced airway management was needed in more than 50% of the cases and surgical management was done in 90% of the cases.
Conclusions: Practitioners should be aware of its existance, epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and initial clinical manifestations to develop a high index of suspicion, to order studies that may discard or confirm the diagnosis, and to offer prompt treatment to preserve patient’s life and reduce the disfigurement and disability that it may cause.
Adults; Facial; Necrotizing fasciitis